Lakewood Painters Painting Blog

Feb 2016

For most homeowners, exterior House Painting is a costly and laborious chore that often put households’ coffers and brawn
to a test, a rigorous one at that. Though the online realm is filled with handy information on exterior residential painting, it is a
chore usually dreaded by homeowners up until the need is great. When the home needs to be returned to its previous glory
for a planned re-sale or when its aesthetic quality is on the brink of dilapidation, the task of finding money-saving initiatives
does not escape the minds of most homeowners especially in today’s trying times.

To some who have experienced painting jobs before, painting the home’s exterior on their own can truly help skimp a lot of
added cost on professional labor. But when know-how and skills is dancing around zero and nada, the idea of doing it on
your own might prove to be catastrophic. DIY paint jobs do not just entail painting directly atop the old paint. Pre-painting
basics need to remove old paints and clean the surface to guarantee an even finish. Back-jobs are truly costly and all
wasted efforts could have been focused on more important undertakings. Why not hire pro House Painters instead? If it is
wise savings you need, the role of professionals cannot be underestimated. Apart from expert painting procedures allotted to
your abode, they can also provide sound advice on paint type that will work best with your exterior. Money saved from longer
lasting results eventually is much better than having to hold back on professional services and suffer irreparable
consequences.

Lakewood Painters is author of this article on House Painting. Find more information about House Painters.
Tags: home painters, home painting, house painters, house painting, House Painting Reviews        

In England,
little is known of the trade and its structures before the late 13th century, at which point guilds began to form, amongst them the
Painters
Company and the Stainer's Company. These two guilds eventually merged with the consent of the Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1502,
forming the Worshipful Company of Painter - Stainer's. The guild standardised the craft and acted as a protector of the trade secrets. In 1599, the
guild asked Parliament for protection, which was eventually granted in a bill of 1606, which granted the trade protection from outside competition
such as plasterers. The Act legislated for a seven year apprenticeship, and also barred plasterers from painting, unless apprenticed to a painter,
with the penalty for such painting being a fine of 1635. The Act also enshrined a maximum daily fee of 16 old pence for their labour. A painter,
painting a room in a house Enforcement of this Act by the Painter - Stainer's Company was sought up until the early 19th century, with master
painters gathering irregularly to decide the fees that a journeyman could charge, and also instigating an early version of a job centre in 1769,
advertising in the London newspapers a house of call system to advertise for journeymen and also for journeymen to advertise for work. The
guild's power in setting the fee a journeyman could charge was eventually overturned by law in 1827, and the period after this saw the guild's
power diminish, along with that of the other guilds; the guilds were superseded by trade unions, with the Operative United Painters' Union
forming sometime around 1831.In 1894, a national association formed, recreating itself in 1918 as the National Federation of Master Painters
and Decorators of England and Wales, then changing its name once again to the British Decorators Association before merging, in 2002, with
the Painting & Decorating Federation to form the Painting & Decorating Association. The Construction Industry Joint Council, a body formed of
both unions and business organizations, today has responsibility for the setting of pay levels. Tools of the trade. The modern composition of
paints results in latex formulations being widely used for exterior as well as interior. That greatly reduces post painting cleanup, and reduces the
smells associated with petroleum and polyester based paints. For many painting jobs, the most important innovation in painting has been
computerized paint scanners that formulate new paints to match the often faded color of existing paints. Or, to match fabric colors, flowers or
another desired source. Most chain stores offer color matching service. Modern paints are available in various specialized formulations that can
be fade resistant, chip resistant, odor free, antibiotic to resist mold and fungi growth, etc. For surfaces where a very smooth surface is desired,
most retailers carry inexpensive chemicals that can be added to paints to better make the paint flow or lay flat. Such additives are preferable to
thinning paint, which can change some of the paint's characteristics. For the layman, the most confusing element is primer and priming
surfaces. For surfaces such as wood, paint alone is too thick and will be on the surface, but not adhere well, resulting in flaking. Primer is a thin
paint solution, or even a specialized liquid color coordinated to support the finish coat, which penetrates into the pores of wood, and allows the
finish coat to adhere to the underlying primer. Priming also results in less painters being needed. For unpainted wood, most laymen expect to
apply two coats of paint. However, one coat of inexpensive primer and then a finish coat is much less expensive. For metal surfaces, primer may
involve special characteristics to resist corrosion, prevent impact chipping or improve adhesion of the finish coat. Especially for problem paint
jobs, such as new work, fungal presence or peeling paint, most professional paint retailers offer free consulting services. When their
instructions and materials are used, guarantees of 5 to 20 years are available as to adhesion, water proofing, etc. Of the finished paint job. For
professional painters, the majority of their time is spent in preparation for paint application, not in painting per Se. Cleaning and sanding
surfaces, taping and applying paper or plastic to surfaces not to be painted typically involve 50% or more of the painter's total time budget.
Although the brush and the fabric roller were the tools most readily associated with the painter, foam brushes are now commonly used for
precise work requiring a straight line. Foam brushes can also be used to create a smoother surface using less paint that dries more quickly
than brush applications. Like fabric rollers, foam rollers can also create patterns in the painted surface. Recent advances in manufacture have
led to a standardization of brushes, with many older types of brushes falling from fashion. The spray gun is one of the latest tools in the painters
arsenal. It is powered by an electric, pneumatic or fuel powered motor which pumps paint through a hose into a gun which atomizes the paint to
a fine spray. With the airless spray gun it is possible to paint extremely large areas of surface in a short time. However, sprayed paint when dry
can display unsightly patterns if the spraying application does not result in an even distribution of paint. The ground brush, also known as a
pound brush, was a round or elliptical brush bound by wire, cord or metal. They were generally heavy to use, and required considerable usage to
break them in. These brushes were predominantly used in the days before modern paint manufacturing techniques; hand-mixed paints
requiring more working to create the finish. These brushes still have use in applying primer, as they are useful in working the primer into the
grain of the wood. Pound brushes required an even breaking in to create even bevel on both sides of the brush, minimising the formation of a
point which would render the brush useless. Sash tools were smaller brushes, similar to a ground brush, and used mainly for cutting in sash or
glazing bars found on windows. Sash tools and ground brushes generally required bridling before use, and a painters efficiency in this skill was
generally used as a guide to their overall ability. Both these brushes have largely been superseded by the modern varnish brush. Varnish
brushes are the most common flat brushes available today and are used for painting as well as varnishing. Brushes intended for varnishing
typically have a bevelled edge. Distemper brushes, used for applying distemper, an early form of whitewash, were best made of pure bristle and
bound by copper bands to prevent rust damage. Styles differed across the world, with flat nailed brushes popular in Northern England, a two
knot brush (a brush with two ovular heads) popular in Southern England, and three knot brushes or flat head brushes preferred elsewhere. In
the United States distemper brushes were known as calcimine, jasmine or calamine brushes, each term being the U.S. Variant of whitewash.
Fitches are smaller brushes, either ovular or flat and one inch wide, that are used in fine work such as to pick out the detail on a painted
moulding. Stippler's come in various shapes and sizes and are used to apply paint with a stippled effect. A duster or jamb brush was used to
dust the area to be painted before work commenced. Stencil brushes, similar in style to a shaving brush, were used for the purpose of
stencilling walls or in the creation of hand-made wallpapers. Brushes are best stored in a purpose made brush keeper, a box on which a wire
could be suspended. The wire would be threaded through the hole in a brush's handle so as to suspend the brush in a cleaning solution
without allowing the brush to sit on the bottom of the container and thus cause spreading of the bristles. The solution would also prevent
hardening of the brushes and oxidization. These were generally rectangular and stored several brushes. A lid would enclose the brushes and
keep them free from dust. If brushes are cleaned after use, they can last for years. Since most modern exterior and interior paints are latex
based, cleaning the brushes after use with hot soapy water and a toothbrush can remove all traces of paint. Oil based paints are normally
cleaned with a petroleum solvent such as mineral spirits, again using a toothbrush to remove all traces of paint. Metal & are used to penetrate
into the bristles of a brush to remove drying painters. Although paints are now available in no-drip containers to pour paint into trays for roller
application, most paints are sold in metal gallon or quart cans. For large jobs, paints come in 5-gallon containers. For metal cans, a large
diameter nail or punch is used to make drain holes in the lip of the can. The holes allow paint to return into the can. The lid can then be
reattached correctly and removed later. Without the drain holes paint will accumulate in the lip, and act as an adhesive preventing the lid from
being easily removed later. Closing a lid with paint in the lip can also result in paint traveling 15-feet or more horizontally. The air in partly filled
paint cans forms over time a dried surface film. To prevent development of film, prior to closing a latex paint container add a small amount of
distilled (or tap) water that will remain on the top and prevent drying. For oil based paints use the solvent recommended for brush cleaning.
When the container is reopened, stir the water/solvent into the paint before using. Drop cloths, brown painter's paper, dust sheets, paint sheets,
paint tarps or plastic protection films are reused to protect nearby surfaces that are not being painted. Why? When using brushes or rollers (not
foam brushes), tiny paint droplets will travel up to five feet horizontally. Masking tape is used to define the line between the painted and unpainted
surface, as well as to hold protection materials in place. Masking tape is available in several categories. The classic tape is a high adhesive and
beige colored. However it frequently damages the underlying surface when removed, and the longer it's in place the more damage created.
Modern delay removal blue tape prevents damaging the taped surface. It has about 60% of the adhesive power of beige tape. Delicate blue tape
has about 40% the adhesion of beige, and purple tape can remain on a surface for up to 30-days without creating damage. Caution! Although
blue and purple tape can be left on, it absolutely shouldn't remain after painting. All types of tape should be removed within a few hours of
painting. Why? Because the paint will form a continuous layer from surface to tape. Delaying the removal of the tape after the paint dries
completely can result in unsightly damage to the painted surface. The ability of the tape to remain for extended periods is related to preparation
for painting, not to delay removal after painting. If the tape has been left on too long, use a razor to cut along the edge, so removal won't result in
damage to the new paint. The less adhesive tapes should be used especially when tape is applied to new work. Depending on the paint
composition, dry paint may still be soft and easily damaged for 30-days or more. Some modern house painters in the US, Canada and Australia
have adopted color visualization computer software, developed by companies such as Au tech Software. Design, as an additional tool to help
demonstrate to customers how their home would look after it is painted. House painters can use a digital photo outputted by this software to
show possible color schemes on the client's home exterior or room walls to help with their color selection. Activities of the trade Historically, the
painter was responsible for the mixing of the paint; keeping a ready supply of pigments, oils, thinners and driers. The painter would use his
experience to determine a suitable mixture depending on the nature of the job. In modern times, the painter is primarily responsible for
preparation of the surface to be painted, such as patching holes in drywall, using masking tape and other protection on surfaces not to be
painted, applying the paint and then cleaning up. Larger firms operating within the trade were generally capable of performing many painting or
decoration services, from sign writing, to the gilding of objects or the finishing or refinishing of furniture. More recently, professional painters are
responsible for all preparation prior to painting. All scraping, sanding, wallpaper removal, caulking, drywall or wood repair, patching, stain
removal, filling nail holes or any defects with plaster or putty, cleaning, taping, preparation and priming are considered to be done by the
professional contracted painter. Professional painters need to have keen knowledge of tools of the trade, including sanders, scrapers, paint
sprayers, brushes, paint rollers, ladders and scaffolding, in addition to just the paint in order to correctly complete work. Much preparation needs
to be considered before simply applying paint. For instance, taping and drop cloth techniques, sizes of brushes or rollers, material types or
dimensions of rollers or brushes (there are different sizes or types of brushes and rollers for different paints), amount of paint, number of paint
coats, amount of primer, types of primers and paints, certain grits and cuts of sandpaper, trim cutting (the act of painting with a brush on the
outline of baseboard, moldings and other trim work), wallpaper removal, and nail-hole filling techniques just to name a few. Today many
painters are attempting to break into the field of faux painting, allowing them more creativity and access to a higher end customer base.
Paint is any liquid, liquefy able, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film.
History cave
painting drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide, and charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapient
as long as 40,000 years ago. Ancient taco colored walls at Danders, Egypt, which were exposed for many ages to the open air, still possess a
perfect brilliancy of color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with some gummy
substance, and applied them separated from each other without any blending or mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black,
blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the field entirely with white, upon which they traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the
ground color. They used minimum for red, and generally of a dark tinge. Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardra,
which had been executed at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the
lapse of so many centuries. Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and stick onto the surface applied.
Pigments were made from plants, sands, and different soil types. Components Pigment Pigments are granular solids incorporated into the paint
to contribute color, toughness, texture or simply to reduce the cost of the paint. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in
combination with pigments. Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium
carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fix, precipitated calcium carbonate, and
synthetic silicas. Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments
include titanium dioxide, ft halo blue, red iron oxide, and many others. Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support
its structure and simply increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually made of cheap and inert materials, such as diatom vacuous earth,
talc, lime, Bart, clay, etc. Floor paints that will be subjected to abrasion may even contain fine quartz sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers.
On the other hand some painters contain very large proportions of pigment/filler and binder. Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments
that are used in lead paint. Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, titanium white (titanium
dioxide), even before lead was functionally banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. The
titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silicon or aluminum oxides for various reasons such as better exterior durability,
or better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film. Binder or vehicle The binder,
commonly referred to as the vehicle, is the actual film forming component of paint. It is the only component that must be present; other
components listed below are included optionally, depending on the desired properties of the cured film. The binder imparts adhesion, binds the
pigments together, and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and Toughness binders include
synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene (VA), polyurethane's, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or Oils
binders can be categorized according to drying, or curing mechanism. The four most common are simple solvent evaporation, oxidative cross
linking, catalyzed polymerization, and coalescence. There are others.
Acrylic painted acrylic paint detail of acrylic painting showing finishes that resemble both oil and watercolor Acrylic paint is fast drying paint
containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry.
Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can
resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other Water-based acrylic paints were
subsequently sold as latex house paints, although acrylic dispersion uses no latex derived from a rubber tree. Interior latex" house paints
tend to be a combination of binder (sometimes acrylic, vinyl, ova and others), filler, pigment and water. Exterior house painters may also be a
co-polymer blend, but the very best exterior water-based paints are 100% acrylic. Soon after the water-based acrylic binders were introduced as
house paints, artists and companies alike began to explore the potential of the new binders. Water-soluble artists' acrylic paints became
commercially available in the 1950s, offered by Liquored, with high-viscosity paints similar to those made today becoming available in the early
1960s .Techniques Acrylic artist paints may be thinned with water and used as washes in the manner of watercolor paints, but the washes are
not re-hydra table once dry. For this reason, acrylics do not lend themselves to color lifting techniques as do gum Arabic based watercolor paints.
Fluorescent acrylic paints lit by UV Light acrylic paints with gloss or matte finishes are available, although a satin (semi-matte) sheen is most
common; some brands exhibit a range of finish (e.g. heavy-body paints from Golden, Liquored and Windsor Newton). As with oils, pigment
amounts and particle size or shape can naturally affect the paint sheen. Matting agents can also be added during manufacture to dull the finish.
The artist can mix mediums to their paints and use topcoats or varnishes to alter or unify sheen if desired. When dry, acrylic paint is generally
non-removable from a solid surface. Water or mild solvents do not re-solubilize it, although isotropy alcohol can lift some fresh paint films off.
Toluene and acetone can remove paint films, but they do not lift paint stains very well and are not selective. The use of a solvent to remove paint
will result in removal of all of the paint layers, acrylic Gussi, etc. Oils can remove acrylic paint from skin[citation needed].Only a proper,
artist-grade acrylic Gussi should be used to prime canvas in preparation for painting with acrylic. It is important to avoid adding non-stable or
non-archival elements to the Gussi upon application. Acrylic will not form a stable paint film if it has been thinned with more than 30% water
content[citation needed]. However, the viscosity of acrylic can successfully be reduced by using suitable extenders that maintain the integrity of
the paint film. There are retarders to slow drying and extend workability time and flow Releases to increase color-blending ability. Painters and
acrylic prior to the 19th century, artists mixed their own paints to increase the longevity of the artwork and achieve desired pigment load, viscosity,
and to control the use of fillers, if any. While suitable media and raw pigments are available for the individual production of acrylic paint, due to the
fast drying time and other technical issues, hand mixing may not be Practical acrylic painters modify the appearance, hardness, flexibility, texture,
and other characteristics of the paint surface using acrylic media. Watercolor and oil painters also use various media, but the range of acrylic
media is much greater. Acrylics have the ability to bond to many different surfaces, and media can be used to adjust their binding characteristics.
Acrylic can be used on paper, canvas and a range of other materials. However, their use on engineered woods such as Medium-density
fibreboard can be problematic because of the porous nature of those surfaces. In these cases it is recommended that the surface should be
previously sealed with an appropriate sealer. They can be applied in thin layers or washes creating effects that resemble watercolors and other
water-based media. They can also be used to build thick layers of paint: gel and molding paste media are sometimes used to create painting
with relief features that are literally Sculptural acrylic paints are the most commonly used in wattage. Hobby painters who paint miniatures like
those used in war games commonly use acrylic or vinyl paints today where enamels were preferred in the 1970 Differences between acrylic and
oil paint the vehicle and binder of oil paints is linseed oil or another drying oil, whereas water serves as the vehicle for an emulsion (suspension)
of acrylic polymer that is the binder in acrylic paint. Thus, oil paint is said to be oil-based while acrylic paint is water-based (or sometimes
water-borne).The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend
colors and apply even glazes over under painting. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but in other
regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly. The fast evaporation of water from regular acrylic paint films can be slowed with the use of
acrylic retarders. Retarders are generally glycol or glycerin-based additives. The addition of a retarder slows the evaporation rate of the Waterfowl
paints may require the use of solvents such as mineral spirits or turpentine to thin the paint and clean up; these generally have some level of
toxicity and are often found objectionable. (Relatively recently, water-miscible oil paints have been developed for artists' use.) Oil paint films can
become increasing yellow and brittle with time and lose much of their flexibility in a few decades. Additionally, the rules of fat over lean  must be
employed to ensure the paint films are Durable oil paint has a higher pigment load because it is able to absorb substantially more pigment than
acrylic because linseed oil has a smaller molecule than does acrylic. Oil provides a different (less clear) refractive index than acrylic dispersions,
imparting a unique look and fee to the resultant paint film. Not all pigments in oil are available in acrylic. For instance, Prussian blue is not
generally available due to chemical incompatibility with the acrylic binder. On the other hand there are no fluorescent oil paints like in Acrylic due
to acrylics more flexible nature and more consistent drying time between colors, the painter does not have to follow the fat over lean rule of oil
painting, where more medium must be applied to each layer to avoid cracking. While canvas needs to be properly sized and primed before
painting with oil (otherwise it will eventually rot the canvas), acrylic can be safely applied to raw canvas. The rapid drying of the paint tends to
discourage the blending of color and use of wet within wet technique as in oil painting. While acrylic retarders can slow drying time to several
hours, it remains a relatively fast-drying medium, and the addition of too much acrylic retarder can prevent the paint from ever drying properly.
Although the permanency of acrylics is sometimes debated by conservators, they appear more stable than oil paints. Whereas oil paints
normally turn yellow as they age/dry(oxidize) acrylic paints, at least in the 50 years since their invention, have not yellowed, cracked, or altered.
Another difference between oil and acrylic paints is the versatility offered by acrylic paints - acrylic is very useful in mixed media, allowing use of
pastel, charcoal, pen, etc. On top of the dried acrylic painted surface. Mixing other bodies into the acrylic is possible - sand, rice, even pasta may
be incorporated in the artwork. Mixing artist or student quality acrylic paint with household acrylic emulsions is possible, allowing the use of per -
mixed tints straight from the tube or tin, so presenting the painter with a vast color range at his or her Disposal this versatility is also illustrated in
the wide variety of additional artistic uses that acrylics afford the artist. Specialist acrylics have been manufactured and used for lino block printing
(acrylic block printing ink produced by Derivate since the early 1980s), face painting, airbrushing, water color techniques, fabric screen painting
and the list goes on.
Water is the main diluent for water-borne paints. Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of solvents as the
diluent, including alpha tics, aromatics, alcohols, ketone's and white spirit. These include organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters,
glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as silents. Such solvents are used when water
resistance, grease resistance, or similar properties are desired.[edit] Additives Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have
a wide variety of miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in very small amounts and yet give a very significant effect on the product.
Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance, increase wet edge,
improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives include catalysts,
thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, textures, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers, flattener's (de-glossing agents), dioxides to fight bacterial
growth, and the Like additives normally do not significantly alter the percentages of individual components in a Formulation color changing paint
various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermo chromic paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation
when heat is applied, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints, such as in the thermometer strips and tapes
used in fish tanks. Photo chromic paints and coatings contain dyes that change conformation when the film is exposed to UV light, and so they
change color. These materials are used to make eyeglasses. Electro chromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current.
Car manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electro chromic paint for use in its vehicles, based on particles of paramagnetic
iron oxide. When subjected to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying their color and reflective
properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed using the conductive metal of the car body. Electro chromic paints can be applied to
plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology involves using special dyes that change conformation when an
electric current is applied across the film itself. Recently, this new technology has been used to achieve glare protection at the touch of a button
in passenger airplane windows. Art Watercolors as applied with a brush since the time of the Renaissance, fixative (drying) oil paints, primarily
linseed oil, have been the most commonly used kind of paints in fine art applications; oil paint is still common today. However, in the 20th
century, water-based paints, including watercolors and acrylic paints, became very popular with the development of acrylic and other latex paints.
Milk paints (also called casein), where the medium is derived from the natural emulsion that is milk, were popular in the 19th century and are
still available today. Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are en caustic
wax-based paints. Gauche is a variety of opaque watercolor which was also used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for manuscript
illuminations. The pigment was often made from ground semiprecious stones such as lapins lazuli and the binder made from either gum Arabic
or egg white. Gauche, also known as 'designer color' or 'body color' is commercially available Today poster paint has been used primarily in the
creation of student works, or by Children the & painter's mussel & a European freshwater mussel. Individual shell valves were used by artists as
a small dish for painting.
Note that drying and curing are two different processes. Drying generally refers to evaporation of the solvent or thinner, whereas curing refers to
polymerization of the binder. (The term "vehicle" is industrial jargon which is used inconsistently, sometimes to refer to the solvent
and sometimes to refer to the binder.) Depending on chemistry and composition, any particular paint may undergo either, or both processes.
Thus, there are paints that dry only, those that dry then cure, and those that do not depend on drying for curing. Paints that dry by simple solvent
evaporation and contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent are known as lacquers. A solid film forms when the solvent evaporates, and
because the film can re-dissolve in solvent, lacquers are not suitable for applications where chemical resistance is important. Classic
nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent and more modern acrylic
based coatings such as 5-ball Karylin aerosol. Performance varies by formulation, but lacquers generally tend to have better UV resistance and
lower corrosion resistance than comparable systems that cure by polymerization or coalescence.Latex paint is a water-borne dispersion of
sub-micrometre polymer particles. The term in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree
that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Latex paints cure by a
process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex
binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the painter will not redissolve in the solvent/water
that originally carried it. Residual surfactant's in the paint as well as hydrolysis effects with some polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible
to softening and, over time, degradation by Water paints that cure by oxidative cross linking are generally single package coatings that when
applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that cross links and polymerizes the binder component. Classic alkyd enamels would
fall into this category. Oxidative cure coatings are catalyzed by metal complex driers such as cobalt nap hyphenate. Paints that cure by catalyzed
polymerization are generally two package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction initiated by mixing resin and hardener, and
which cure by forming a hard plastic structure. Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two
package epoxies or polyurethane's would fall into this Category still other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, en caustic or
wax paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. In many cases, they will res often or liquefy if reheated. Recent environmental
requirements restrict the use of Volatile Organic Compounds (docs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for
industrial purposes. In UV curing painters, the solvent is evaporated first, and hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light. In powder coatings
there is little or no solvent, and flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after electrostatic application of the dry powder.[edit]
solvent the main purposes of the solvent are to adjust the curing properties and viscosity of the paint. It is volatile and does not become part of
the paint film. It also controls flow and application properties, and affects the stability of the paint while in liquid state. Its main function is as the
carrier for the non volatile components. In order to spread heavier oils (i.e. Linseed) as in oil-based interior house painters, a thinner oil is
required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily once the solvent has evaporated or disintegrated, the remaining paint is
fixed to the surface. This component is optional: some paints have no diluent.
Application
Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results
desired.As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high
temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere (stick) to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the paint,
the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the overall object being painted). This is commonly referred to as & powder
coating" an object. As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an
object. The paint sticks to the object. This is commonly referred to as "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include:
The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object ever touches the object being painted;  The distribution of the paint is very uniform so
there are no sharp lines;* It is possible to deliver very small amounts of paint;* A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the
paint to dissolve together both the delivered paint and the chemicals on the surface of the object being painted;  Some chemical reactions in
paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules.In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes, paint rollers,
blades, other instruments, or body parts such as fingers. Paint application by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is
atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure compression of the paint itself, which results in the paint being turned
into small droplets which travel to the article which is to be painted. Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles
which can be attached to allow for painting at different heights. Generally, roller application takes two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker
nap is used to apply paint on uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush. After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval
during which it can be blended with additional painted regions  called open time. The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be
extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dow anal (propylene glycol ether) or commercial open time prolonger's. This can also
facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for
water-based coatings.
Paint may also be applied by flipping the paint, dripping, or by dipping an object in paint.Interior/exterior house painting
tends to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom. It should be mixed before use, with a flat wooden stick or a paint
mixing accessory; pouring it back and forth between two containers is also an effective manual mixing method. Painting stores have machines
for mixing the paint by shaking it vigorously in the can for a few Minutes the opacity and the film thickness of paint may be measured using a
draw down card. Oil-based paints when dry tend to be very durable, washable, and long-lasting. The paint would take about almost 1 day to dry.
Water-based paints tend to be the safest, and easiest to clean up after using the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water. It is
difficult to reseal the paint container and store the paint well for a long period of time. It should be stored upside down, for a good seal. Storage
should be in a cool dry place, protected from freezing. Proper disposal of left over paint is a challenge. Sometimes it can be recycled: Old paint
may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat, and paints of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform
color. If it is necessary to dispose of paint, one approach is to dry it, either by leaving the lid off until it solidifies (which tends to work well only for
small quantities), or by pouring it into a disposable drying device, such as a piece of plywood surrounded by a lip. Many commercial paint stores
also carry paint hardeners which will work for both latex or oil based paints and is useful for larger quantities. If available, clay based cat litter will
do the job as well. Once dry, the paint may be discarded with normal trash (just make sure to keep the lid off so it won't be refused during pick
up). Wet oil-based paint should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations. Old paint can chip off the surface
and become a paint. Product variants A collection of cans of paint and variants
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